Convinced that a jesuit plot was in progress, Tonge's object was to ‘make the people jealous of popery.’ That once effected, he convinced Oates that their fortunes would be made. Before the case came on Oates managed to escape from Dover gaol, and he hid in London for a few weeks, at the end of which period he obtained a berth as chaplain on board a king's ship, and appears to have made the voyage to Tangier. damages, and thrown into prison, while his father was ejected from his living (Wood, Life and Times, Oxf. He returned to Tonge, who was then lodging in the house of one Lambert, a bell-founder in Vauxhall, and the pair managed to involve in their schemes one Christopher Kirkby, a Lancashire gentleman, whose interest in chemistry had introduced him to the notice of Charles II. Thus Symon Patrick relates how, in the early days of the plot, a certain Father Dupuis was brought before Oates, who looked earnestly upon him and said: ‘This is Father du Puis, who was to write the king's life after they killed him. His fondness for foul language was such that in the presence of superiors he is said to have missed no opportunity of narrating the blasphemies of others (North, Examen; Calamy, Life, i. of Crime; Campbell's Lord Chancellors; Thornbury and Walford's Old and New London; Wheatley and Cunningham's London Past and Present; and the following articles: Bedloe, William; Coleman, Edward; Dangerfield, Thomas; Godfrey, Sir Edmund Berry; Ireland, William; L'Estrange, Sir Roger; Prance, Miles; Tonge. Plunkett’s trial and execution had sickened many people – the Archbishop was known to be a good and virtuous man, no matter his Catholic faith – and the popular sentiment began to turn. He also seems to have had a brother named Samuel (Trial of Thomas Knox and John Lane, 1679). 75–84). Oates was given a squad of soldiers and he began to round up Jesuits, including those who had helped him in the past. He was also a friend of Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey, a judge before whom Titus Oates swore his "Narrative". In January 1680, in conjunction with Bedloe, he sought to avenge himself on Scroggs for Wakeman's acquittal by exhibiting against him before the king and council thirteen articles respecting his public and private life (Hatton, Correspondence, Camd. Just over the border, in Hereford, eighty year old Fr John Kemble, another secular priest, met his fate on … pp. ; Sidney's Diary, ed. Titus Oates tells Charles II of the Popish Plot from a playing card designed by the English … of Treasury Papers, 1697–1702, p. 116). In 1678, Titus was close to thirty and so far had not achieved anything noteworthy with his life. He had short bandy legs and long arms. While in Hastings he accused a … On 6 September 1678, Oates and Tonge had approached an Anglican magistrate, Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey and had sworn an affidavit before him detailing their accusations. The pilot was Aubrey “Titus” Oates DFC. He returned to his old lodging in Axe Yard, and resumed his favourite occupation of attending the sittings of the courts in Westminster Hall. The commons regarded this in the light of an outrage, and the two houses were on the verge of a serious quarrel when the prorogation of 20 Aug. 1689 set Oates at liberty. 7). Israel. The jury convicted Coleman, and he was executed on 3 Dec. A proclamation issued on the day of the trial promising pardon to the evidence and a reward of 200l. Early life. This article is about Titus Oates the perjurer. ‘Because,’ he wrote with ironical bitterness in his ‘Account of the late King James’ (1696), ‘through the great mercy of Almighty God supporting me, and the extraordinary Care and Skill of a judicious chyrurgeon, I outlived your cruelty … you sent some of your Cut-throat Crew whilst I was weak in my Bed to pull off those Plasters applied to cure my Back, and in your most gracious name they threatened with all Courtesie and Humanity to destroy me.’ The name, address, and charges of the ‘judicious chyrurgeon’ are given at the end of the book, and iterated reference is made to him in Oates's later writings. Oates subsequently exploited this incident to launch a public campaign against the "Papists" and alleged that the murder of Godfrey had been the work of the Jesuits. Titus was entered at Merchant Taylors' School in June 1665, but was expelled in the course of his first year, and it was from Sedlescombe school, near Hastings, that he passed, in 1667, as a poor scholar, to Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge. Thomas Whitbread took a much firmer line with Oates than had Strange and, in June 1678, expelled him from St Omer.:58. Executions of Catholic priests were being carried out in various parts of England and Wales. After nearly three years and the execution of at least 15 innocent men, opinion began to turn against Oates.  Oddly, at the same time he agreed to co-author a series of anti-Catholic pamphlets with Israel Tonge, whom he had met through his father Samuel, who had once more reverted to the Baptist doctrine. Titus Oates reportedly could only be described as ugly. He was educated at Merchant Taylors' School, Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, and St John's College, Cambridge, and became an Anglican priest but was dismissed due to drunken blasphemy and allegations of sodomy. On 28 Feb. 1684 he had the assurance to petition the king and Sir Leoline Jenkins against ‘the scandalous pamphlets of Sir Roger L'Estrange,’ and demanded pecuniary reparation. In June his old evidence was repeated against Whitbread, Harcourt, Fenwick, Gawen, and Turner, and the respectable Roman catholic lawyer, Richard Langhorne [q. v.], all of whom were executed. The last high-profile victim of the climate of suspicion was Oliver Plunkett, Roman Catholic Archbishop of Armagh, who was executed on 1 July 1681. He remained undeterred, so he was arrested for sedition, sentenced to a fine of £100,000 and thrown into prison. Kevin Knight. Oates had been received into the Catholic Church in March 1677, but he would later claim that his conversion was insincere and merely part of his ploy to infiltrate the Society of Jesus. Lord-keeper North once heard Oates preach at St. Dunstan's, and much admired his theatrical behaviour in the pulpit. His trial, compared to the other Plot trials, ... sentenced to a fine of £100,000 and thrown into prison. When James II acceded to the throne in 1685 he had Oates tried on two charges of perjury. ‘The doctor,’ as he was still styled by advanced whigs, retained a certain influence, and on 15 July 1698 the treasury granted him 500l. Oates died on 12 or 13 July 1705, by then an obscure and largely forgotten figure. Oates was to pay a heavy fine, to be stripped of his canonical habits, to stand in the pillory annually at certain specified places and times, to be whipped upon Wednesday, 20 May, from Aldgate to Newgate, and upon Friday, 22 May, from Newgate to Tyburn, and to be committed close prisoner for the rest of his life (Cobbett, State Trials, x. Oates s Plot Oates s Plot Oates still further raised himself in the estimation of the house by some damaging statements concerning Danby, and another resolution was passed expressing their confidence in the plot and its discoverer. In October 1679 he paid a visit to Oxford, where he was fêted by the townspeople and entertained by Lord Lovelace [see Lovelace, John, third Baron Lovelace], though the vice-chancellor had the strength of mind to refuse him the degree of D.D. James II succeeded to his brother in February, and on 8 May 1685 Oates was put upon his trial for perjury. Titus Oates was born in Oakham into a family of Baptist clergymen. However, the charge was shown to be false and Oates himself was soon facing charges of perjury, but he escaped jail fled to London. In 1667 he was entered as a sizar at ... and he was finally sent to prison at Dover to await trial. ... and he was finally sent to prison at Dover to await trial. At Arundel he came into contact with a number of papists, and it is probable that there he first conceived the plan of worming himself into secret counsels which he might betray for his personal profit to the government. Oates lent Fuller money on the security of a Jacobite plot, which the latter was prepared to divulge; but this fair prospect was ruined, in Oates's estimation, by Fuller's cowardly scruples (The whole Life of William Fuller, 1703, p. 623). Kevin Knight. 520). When the Duke of York acceded to the throne in 1685 as James II, he had Oates retried, convicted and sentenced for perjury, stripped of clerical dress, imprisoned for life, and to be "whipped through the streets of London five days a year for the remainder of his life. Oates was admitted to the course in Valladolid by the support of Richard Strange, despite a lack of basic competence in Latin. Sir John Reresby relates how, dining with himself and the Bishop of Ely in December 1680, Oates reflected upon the Duke of York and upon the queen-dowager in such an outrageous manner as to disgust the most extreme partisan present. of England, vol. • A Popish Plot which, during the reign of Charles II of England, Titus Oates pretended to have discovered. When he was found out, Titus Oates was deemed to merit prolonged punishment. Having escaped to unpursued to London, England, he obtained an appointment as chaplain on board a king‘s ship sailing for Tangier, but within a year he was expelled from the navy. The acquittal was a severe blow to Oates and to the prosperity of his plot. Oates defended himself with considerable ability, but things naturally went against him now that the evidence of Roman catholics was regarded with attention. From 1678, they went to great lengths to support their scheme, forging evidence and … In April 1677 he formally professed reconciliation with the church of Rome. Four Irish ruffians had been hired by Dr. Fogarty to stab the king at Windsor; and, thirdly, two jesuits, named Grove and Pickering, were to be paid 1,500l. Titus Oates and his fellow perjurers must have been smugly satisfied too. His father Samuel, a graduate of Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, was a minister who moved between the Church of England and the Baptists; he became a Baptist during the Puritan Revolution,:5 rejoining the established church at the Restoration and was rector of All Saints' Church at Hastings (1666–74). In 1674 he left Bobbing, with a license for non-residence, and went as a curate to his father at All Saints, Hastings. 80).  Oates alleged that there existed an extensive Catholic conspiracy to assassinate Charles II, accusations that led to the execution of at least 15 men and precipitated the Exclusion Bill Crisis. Strange arranged for Oates to study with the Jesuits at Valladolid in Spain under the pseudonym Titus Ambrosius, but this ended in much the same way as his earlier studies. He kept a footing there until 23 June 1678, when an inevitable expulsion precipitated his disclosures (Florus Anglo-Bavaricus, Liège, 1685). At any rate, the incident completely assured Oates's success. Oates alleged that there was an extensive Catholic conspiracy to assassinate Charles II, accusations that led to the executions of at least 22 men and precipitated the Exclusion Bill Crisis. :3 His long chin proved his wit, his saint-like grace 166, 182). After his scourgings his troubles were by no means at an end. Tonge was now devoting all his energies to the production of diatribes against the jesuits, whom he suspected of plotting an English version of the massacre of St. Bartholomew. 11th Rep. App. The execution of the five Jesuits The Popish Plot was a fictitious conspiracy concocted by Titus Oates that gripped England, Wales and Scotland in Anti Catholic hysteria between 1678 and 1681. But the acquisition of such an ally as Oates enabled Tonge to greatly enlarge the sphere of his activities. He is stated by Wood to have died on 6 Feb. 1683 (Life and Times, iii. On 24 November 1678, Oates claimed the Queen was working with the King's physician to poison the King. Titus Oates was born in Oakham.His father, Samuel, was the director of Marsham in Norfolk  before becoming an Anabaptist during the Puritan Revolution  and rejoining the Church of England at the Restoration. Oates's career also forms the subject of a short article in Blackwood's Mag. His father, the descendant of a family of Norwich ribbon-weavers, left the established church, and gained some notoriety as a ‘dipper’ or anabaptist in East Anglia in 1646. Criminal though he was, he next found means of obtaining the post of chaplain to the protestants in the Duke of Norfolk's household. Roger North says of Oates, with substantial justice: ‘He was a man of an ill cut, very short neck, and his visage and features were most particular. When James II became the king in 1685, he had Oates tried on two charges of perjury. Nevertheless, after some failures, Oates contrived to ‘slip into orders’ in the established church, being instituted to the vicarage of Bobbing in Kent on 7 March 1673, on the presentation of George Moore (Reg. for further disclosures evoked a crop of tortuous and mendacious testimony against the catholics; but no serious rival to Oates and Bedloe was forthcoming. The presiding judge was Judge Jeffreys who stated that Oates was a "shame to mankind". The ‘Black Bastard,’ as they called the king, was a condemned heretic, and was to be put to death. Oates was educated at Merchant Taylors' School and other schools. Titus Oates (15 September 1649 – 12/13 July 1705), also called Titus the Liar, was an English perjurer who fabricated the "Popish Plot", a supposed Catholic conspiracy to kill King Charles II. He was expelled two years later and went to a school at Sedlescombe, near Hastings, whence he passed to Cambridge in 1667, being entered as a sizar in Gonville and Caius College, whence he afterwards migrated to St. John's. In August 1681 he charged with libel a former scholar and usher of Merchant Taylors', Isaac Backhouse, master of Wolverhampton grammar school, on the ground that Backhouse had called after him in St. James's Park, ‘There goes Oates, that perjured rogue,’ but the action was allowed to fall to the ground (Clode, Titus Oates and Merchant Taylors'). On 28 September, Oates made 43 allegations against various members of Catholic religious orders — including 541 Jesuits — and numerous Catholic nobles. Judge Godfrey left his house on 12.10.1678, was last seen alive in St. Martins Lane and his body was found on 17.10.1678 in a ditch at the foot of Primrose Hill, strangled and run through with his own sword. At a dinner given by Alderman Wilcox in the city in the summer of 1680 much scandal had been caused by Oates and Tonge openly disputing their respective claims to the proprietorship of the plot, and their whig friends had some difficulty in explaining away the revelations that resulted. In February 1681 a priest named Atwood whom he had denounced was reprieved after conviction by the king. On 18 July followed the important trial of Sir George Wakeman; his condemnation would have involved that of the queen, whom Oates had the audacity to accuse before the council of being privy to the design to kill the king. He was expelled two years later and went to a school at Sedlescombe, near Hastings, whence he passed to Cambridge in 1667, being entered as a sizar in Gonville and Caius College, whence he afterwards migrated to St. John's. 220). Scroggs defended himself in person, and completely turned the tables upon his opponents. Oates himself did not appear in the matter until 6 Sept. 1678, when, in company with Tonge, he visited Sir Edmund Berry Godfrey [q. v.], a well-known justice of the peace, and deposed to the truth of a long written narrative, giving particulars of a comprehensive plot against the life of Charles II, and the substitution of a Roman catholic ministry for that in existence, with the Duke of York as king. Oates was eventually thrown out of his apartments in 1681, fined £100,000 for sedition and spent three years in jail. He was thrown out when it became clear that he had absolutely no grasp of Latin whatsoever. 2006. Seccombe, p. 120; Ellis, Correspondence, i. 340). of Jesus; Lemon's Cat. Alan Marshall, ‘Tonge, Israel (1621–1680)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004, Articles incorporating a citation from the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, History of Roman Catholicism in the United Kingdom, Alumni of Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, People educated at Merchant Taylors' School, Northwood, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury, https://archive.org/details/popishplotstudyi00polluoft, http://venn.lib.cam.ac.uk/cgi-bin/search.pl?sur=&suro=c&fir=&firo=c&cit=&cito=c&c=all&tex=%22OTS667T%22&sye=&eye=&col=all&maxcount=50, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/Titus_Oates?oldid=4954806, Pages using duplicate arguments in template calls, Articles incorporating text from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia with Wikisource reference. James II succeeded to his brother in February, and on 8 May 1685 Oates was put upon his trial for perjury. His trial, compared to the other Plot trials, was reasonably fair, but as in all cases of alleged treason at that date the absence of defence counsel was a fatal handicap, and while Oates' credit had been seriously damaged, the evidence of the principal prosecution witnesses, Turberville and Dugdale, struck even fair minded observers like John Evelyn as being credible enough. for 1849 have proved of special value. 1816, i. (The fine example in the British Museum print-room is reproduced in ‘Twelve Bad Men,’ ed. By falsely claiming to have a degree, he gained a licence to preach from the bishop of London. He was, however, foiled in a discreditable intrigue for wringing a legacy from a wealthy devotee, and in 1701 he was expelled from the sect as ‘a disorderly person and a hypocrite’ (Crosby, Hist. It was proved by abundant evidence that on the first of these dates Oates himself was at St. Omer, and that on the second Ireland was in Staffordshire. of Broadsides; Pinkerton and Grüber's Medallic Hist. It occupies sixty-eight pages, but Oates calls it his short narrative or ‘minutes’ of the plot pending his ‘journal,’ in which the whole hellish mystery was to be laid open. Whoever he pointed at was taken up and committed; so many people got out of his way as from a blast, and glad they could prove their last two years' conversation.’ Parliament made the Duke of Monmouth responsible for the safety of his person, the lord chamberlain for his lodging, the lord treasurer for his diet and necessaries. In 1649 he appears to have been chaplain to Colonel Pride's regiment, but he was expelled from that post by Monck in 1654 for stirring up sedition in the army. Nevertheless, he managed to ‘slip into orders’ of the established church and became his father’s curate at All Saints, Hastings.Oates père et fils brought false charges of sodomy against a local schoolmaster, William Parker, but the case was quashed, with Oates Sr losing his living and Oates Jr charged with perjury, fined £1,000 and thrown into prison at Dover.  With the help of the actor Matthew Medburne[Note 1] he joined the household of the Catholic Henry Howard, 7th Duke of Norfolk as an Anglican chaplain to those members of Howard's household who were protestants. 417). In the winter of 1676, being once more in London and in a destitute condition, Oates encountered Israel Tonge [q. v.], rector of St. Mary Staining, and formerly vicar of Pluckley in Kent. It had anti-Catholic background and it stood against the English Reformation. In August 1676, Oates was arrested in London and returned to Hastings to face trial for his outstanding perjury charges, but he escaped a second time and returned to London. In 1685 portraits of him in the pillory, or as ‘Oats well thresh't,’ became the fashion, and there are several Dutch prints of him, in one of which he is represented in the pillory, surrounded by the heads of seven of his victims, while underneath is a representation of his flogging, with inscriptions in Dutch and in French. Consequently he embraced with much satisfaction an offer of admission to a college of the society abroad. He picked up acquaintance with Whitbread, Pickering, and others of the fathers at Somerset House, where Charles's queen-consort had her private chapel, and eagerly sought admission among the jesuits. Oates himself, after a brief trial before Jeffreys, was cast in damages to the amount of 100,000l., and in default was thrown into the King's Bench prison, where he was loaded with heavy irons. 12th Rep. App. Titus Oates was born in 1649 and spent two years at Cambridge University and left without a Degree, but having “gained a reputation for homosexuality and a canting fanatical way.” He falsely claimed he had a degree, was ordained in the Church of England and became Vicar of Bobbing, in Kent, and then Curate to his father in Hastings. Titus Oates invented a "popish plot", a fictitious conspiracy by catholics to overthrow King Charles II.
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